Mecanismos que controlan la migración del linfocito T a la piel

  • Yuri Alexander Usuga
  • Margarita María Velásquez
Palabras clave: sistema inmunitario cutáneo, células de Langerhans, integrinas, selectinas, quimiocinas, CLA (Cutaneous Lymphocyte-associated Antigen)

Resumen

La piel es un órgano complejo que cumple funciones de barrera física e inmunológica. La presencia de numerosos tipos celulares explica su participación en la inmunidad innata y adaptativa y su capacidad de iniciar una cascada de eventos con repercusión sistémica, a la vez que la hace órgano blanco de procesos patológicos sistémicos. Uno de los principales componentes del sistema inmunitario cutáneo son las células de Langerhans, especializadas en la captura y presentación de antígenos; ante estímulos como la captura de antígenos extraños o propios alterados, migran al ganglio linfático para presentar los antígenos a los linfocitos T. Una vez activados, los linfocitos T pueden migrar a la piel gracias a la expresión de CLA (Cutaneous Lymphocyte-associated Antigen), cuyo ligando, la E-Selectina, se expresa en los endotelios dérmicos. Este proceso de migración y alojamiento en la piel está controlado por quimiocinas, citocinas y moléculas de adhesión que se presentan en el texto.

Biografía del autor/a

Yuri Alexander Usuga

Residente de segundo año, Sección de Dermatología, Departamento de Medina Interna, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

Margarita María Velásquez

Profesora, Sección de Dermatología, Departamento de Medina Interna, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia; Grupo de Investigación Dermatológica, GRID, Medellín, Colombia

Referencias bibliográficas

1. Castrillón L, Palma A, Padilla C. La función inmunológica de la piel. Dermatología Revista Mexicana. 2008;52:211-24.

2. Woodland D, Kohlmeier J. Migration, maintenance and recall of memory T cells in peripheral tissues. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009;9:153-61.

3. Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. Heterogeneity of CD41 memory T cells: Functional modules for tailored immunity. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2076-82.

4. Ebert L, Schaerli P, Moser B. Chemokine-mediated control of T cell traffic in lymphoid and peripheral tissues. Molecular Immunology. 2005;42:799-809.

5. Oh ST, Schramme A, Tilgen W, Gutwein P, Reichrath J. Overexpression of CXCL16 in lesional psoriatic skin. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009;1:114-8.

6. Oostingh G, Schlickum S, Friedl P, Scho M. Impaired induction of adhesion molecule expression in immortalized endothelial cells leads to functional defects in dynamic interactions with lymphocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:2253-8.

7. Papp K, Bissonnette R, Krueger JG, Carey W, Gratton D, Gulliver WP, et al. The treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis with a new anti-CD11a monoclonal antibody. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45:665-74.

8. Deane J, Hickey M. Molecular mechanisms of leukocyte trafficking in T-cell-mediated skin inflammation: Insights from intravital imaging. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2009;11;e25.

9. Schon MP, Zollner TM, Henning Boehncke. The Molecular basis of lymphocyte recruitment to the skin: clues for pathogenesis and selective therapies of inflammatory disorders. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;121:951-62.

10. Wolf-Henning B. Lymphocyte homing to the skin. Inmunology, immunopathology and therapeutic perspectives. New York: CRC Press; 2005. p. 29-52.

11. Wolf-Henning B. Lymphocyte homing to the skin. Inmunology, immunopathology and therapeutic perspectives. New York: CRC press; 2005. p. 185-98.

12. Issekutz T. inhibition of lymphocyte endothelial adhesion and in vivo lymphocyte migration to cutaneous inflammation by ta-3, a new monoclonal antibody to rat lfa-ll. J Immunol. 1992;149:3394-402.

13. Ludwig R, Zollner T, Santoso S. Junctional adhesion molecules (JAM)-B and -C contribute to leukocyte extravasation to the skin and mediate cutaneous inflammation. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;125:969-76.

14. Bengtson P, Lundblad A, Larson G, Pahlsson P. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes from individuals carrying the G329A mutation in the (alpha) 1, 3-fucosyltransferase- VII gene (FUT7) roll on E-and P-selectins. J Immunol. 2002;169:3940-6.

15. Kubes P, Kerfoot SM. Leukocyte recruitment in the microcirculation: the rolling paradigm revisited. Leukocyte recruitment in the microcirculation: The rolling paradigm revisted. News Physiol Sci. 2001;1:76-80

16. Dwir O, Steeber DA, Schwarz US, Camphausen RT, Kansas GS, Tedder TF, et al. L-selectin dimerization enhances tether formation to properly spaced ligand. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:21130-9.

17. Agace WW, Higgins JM, Sadasivan B, Brenner MB, Parker CM. T-lymphocyteepithelial-cell interactions: Integrin alpha (E) (CD103) beta (7), LEEP-CAM and chemokines. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2000;12:563-8.

18. Zlotnik A, Yoshie O. Chemokines. A new classification system and their role in immunity. Immunity. 2000;12:121-7.

19. Berthod F, Germain L, Li H, XuW, Damour O, Auger FA. Collagen fibril network and elastic system remodeling in a reconstructed skin transplanted on nude mice. Matrix Biol. 2001;20:463-73.

20. Feigelson SW, Grabovsky V, Winter E, Chen LL, Pepinsky RB, Yednock T et al. The Src kinase p56 (lck) up-regulates VLA-4 integrin affinity. Implications for rapid spontaneous and chemokine triggered T cell adhesion to VCAM-1 and bronectin. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:13891-901.

21. Homey B, Wang W, Soto H, Buchanan ME, Wiesenborn A, Catron D et al.The orphan chemokine receptor G proteincoupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ILC). J Immunol. 2000;164:3465-70.

22. Ferenczi K, Fuhlbrigge RC, Pinkus J, Pinkus GS, Kupper TS. Increased CCR4 expression in cutaneous T cell lymphoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;119:1405-10.

23. Ikegami-Kuzuhara A, Yoshinaka T, Ohmoto H, InoueY, Saito T. Therapeutic potential of a novel synthetic selectin blocker, OJ-R9188, in allergic dermatitis. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;134:1498-504.

24. Alon R, Feigelson S. From rolling to arrest on blood vessels: Leukocyte tap dancing on endothelial integrin ligands and chemokines at sub-second contacts. Semin Immunol. 2002;14:93-104.

25. Rottman JB, Smith TL, Ganley KG, Kikuchi T, Krueger JG. Potential role of the chemokine receptors CXCR3, CCR4, and the integrin aEb7 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris. Lab Invest. 2001;81:335-47.

26. Smithson G, Rogers CE, Smith PL, Scheidegger EP, Petryniak B, Myers JT et al. Fuc-TVII is required for T helper 1 and T cytotoxic 1 lymphocyte selectin ligand expression and recruitment in inflammation, and together with Fuc-TIV regulates naive T cell trafficking to lymph nodes. J Exp Med. 2001;194:601-14.

27. Yu B, Koga T, Urabe K, Moroi Y, Maeda S, YanagiharaY, et al. Differential regulation of thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine induced by IL-4, IL- 13, TNF-alpha and IFNgamma in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. J Dermatol Sci. 2002;30:29-35.

28. Anaya-Prado R, Ramos-Kelly JR, Toledo-Pereyra LH, Walsh J, Ward PA. Multiple selectin blockade with a small-molecule selectin inhibitor does not affect survival after a second inflammatory challenge with nonlethal LPS. J Invest Surg. 2002;15:171-80.

29. Grabbe S, Varga G, Beissert S, Steinert M, Pendl G, Seeliger S et al. b2 integrins are required for skin homing of primed T cells but not for priming naive Tcells. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:183-92.

30. Hwang ST, Fitzhugh DJ. Aberrant expression of adhesion molecules by Sezary cells: Functional consequences under physiologic shear stress conditions. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;116:466-70.

31. Biedermann T, Schwarzler C, Lametschwandtner G, Thoma G, Carballido-Perrig N, Kund J, et al. Targeting CLA/Eselectin interactions prevents CCR4-mediated recruitment of human Th2 memory cells to human skin in vivo. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:3171-80.

32. Issekutz AC, Issekutz TB. The role of E-selectin, P-selectin, and very late activación antigen-4 in T lymphocyte migration to dermal inflammation. J Immunol. 2002;168:1934-9.

33. Cinamon G, Grabovsky V, Winter E, Franitza S, Feigelson S, Shamri R et al. Novel chemokine functions in lymphocyte migration through vascular endothelium under shear flow. J Leukoc Biol. 2001;69:860-6.

34. Asadullah K, Volk HD, Sterry W. Novel immunotherapies for psoriasis. Trends Immunol. 2002;23:47-53.

35. Kakinuma T, Nakamura K, Wakugawa M, Mitsui H, Tada Y, Saeki H, et al. Thymus and activation-regulate chemokine in atopic dermatitis: Serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine level is closely related with disease activity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;107:535-41.

36. Leonard WJ. TSLP: Finally in the limelight. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:605-7.

37. Ludwig RJ, Schultz JE, Weber C, Kaufmann R, Podda M, Zollner TM. Platelet activation in psoriasis: A possible link to inflammation? J Invest Dermatol. 2001;117:766.

38. Ley K Functions of selectins. Results Probl Cell Differ. 2001;33:177-200.

39. Kunkel EJ, Butcher EC. Chemokines and the tissue-specific migration of lymphocytes. Immunity. 2002;16:1-4.

40. Mackay CR. Chemokines: Immunology’s high impact factors. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:95-101.

41. Pauls K, Schön M, Kubitza RC, Homey B, Wiesenborn A, Lehmann P et al. Role of integrin αE (CD103) β7 for tissue specific epidermal localization of CD8+ T lymphocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;117:569-75.

42. Soumelis V, Reche PA, Kanzler H, Yuan W, Edward G, Homey B, et al. Human epithelial cells trigger dendritic cell mediated allergic inflammation by producing TSLP. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:673-80.

43. Weninger W, Ulfman LH, Cheng G, Souchkova N, Quackenbush EJ, Lowe JB, et al. Specialized contributions by alpha (1,3) fucosyl transferase-IV and Fuc-TVII during leukocyte rolling in dermal microvessels. Immunity. 2000;12:665-76.

44. Khor SP, McCarthy K, DuPont M, Murray K, Timony G. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, allometry, and dose selection of rPSGL-Ig for phase I trial. J Pharmacol ExpTher. 2000;293:618-24.

45. Olsen TS, Ley K. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in leukocyte trafficking. Am J Physiol Reg Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;283:7-28.

46. Takagi J, Erickson HP, Springer TA. C-terminal opening mimicks ‘inside-out’ activación of integrin alpha 5 beta 1. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:412-6.

47. Grabovsky V, Dwir O, Alon R. Endothelial chemokines destabilize L-selectin mediated lymphocyte rolling without inducing selectin shedding. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20640-50.

48. Homey B, Alenius H, Muller A, Soto H, Bowman EP, Yuan W, et al. CCL27-CCR10 interactions regulate T cell mediated skin inflammation. Nat Med. 2002;8:157-65.

49. Kunkel EJ, Boisvert J, Murphy K, Vierra MA, Genovese MC, Wardlaw AJ, et al.Expression of the chemokine receptors CCR4, CCR5, and CXCR3 by human tissue-infiltrating lymphocytes. Am J Pathol. 2002;160:347-55.

50. Zhao LC, Edgar JB, Dailey MO. Characterization of the rapid proteolytic shedding of murine L-selectin. Dev Immunol. 2001;8:267-77.

51. Soler D, Humphreys TL, Spinola SM, Campbell JJ. CCR4 versus CCR10 in human cutaneous TH lymphocyte tracking. Blood. 2002;101:1677-82.

52. Onufer JJ, Horuk R. Chemokines, chemokine receptors and small-molecule antagonists: Recent developments. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2002;23:459-67.

53. Owen C. Chemokine receptors in airway disease: Which receptors to target? Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2001;14:193-202.

54. Kuschert GS, Coulin F, Power CA, Proudfoot AE, Hubbard RE, Hoogwerf AJ, et al. Glycosaminoglycans interact selectively with chemokines and modulate receptor binding and cellular responses. Biochemistry. 1999;38:12959-68.

55. Robert C, Kupper TS. Inflammatory skin diseases, T cells, and immune surveillance. N Eng J Med 1999;341:1817-28.

56. Williams HC. Clinical practice. Atopic dermatitis. N Engl J Med 2005;352:2314-24.

57. Nickoloff BJ, Nestle FO. Recent insights into the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis provide new therapeutic opportunities. J Clin Invest 2004;113: 1664-75.

58. Criscione VD, Weinstock MA. Incidence of cutaneous T cell lymphoma in the United States, 1973-2002. Arch Dermatol 2007;143:854-59.

59. Girardi M, Edelson RL. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: pathogenesis and treatment. Oncology 2000;14:1061-70.

60. Yusuf-Makagiansar H, Anderson ME, Yakoviera TV, Murray JS, Siahaan TJ. Inhibition of LFA-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4/ VCAM-1 as a therapeutic appproach to inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Med Res Rev 2002;2:146-67.
Cómo citar
1.
Usuga YA, Velásquez MM. Mecanismos que controlan la migración del linfocito T a la piel. rev. asoc. colomb. dermatol. cir. dematol. [Internet]. 7 de marzo de 2019 [citado 4 de octubre de 2022];19(1):57-6. Disponible en: https://revista.asocolderma.org.co/index.php/asocolderma/article/view/388

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.
Publicado
2019-03-07
Sección
Artículo de revisión

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a

1 2 3 > >>