Enfermedades con eliminación transepidérmica

  • María Isabel Arredondo
  • Ángela Londoño
  • Rodrigo Restrepo
Palabras clave: Enfermedades perforantes, eliminación transepidérmica, dermatosis perforante adquirida

Resumen

Las enfermedades perforantes constituyen un grupo de diferentes tipos de transtornos cutáneos caracterizados por eliminación transepidérmica de algún componente de la dermis. El material eliminado puede ser extracelular (mucina), tejido conectivo alterado (colágeno o fibras elásticas), células inflamatorias, microorganismos, etc. Las lesiones clínicas son pápulas umbilicadas o nódulos hiperqueratósicos elevados. Pueden ser uni o bilaterales y simétricas. La biopsia de piel es esencial para hacer el diagnóstico. Los hallazgos histológicos son específicos e incluyen una epidermis perforada con una depresión epidérmica en forma de copa. Las tinciones para colágeno y elastina son imprescindibles. Con frecuencia se requieren múltiples cortes seriados para demostrar la perforación. Las enfermedades perforantes más importantes incluyen formas primarias (colagenosis perforante reactiva, foliculitis perforante, enfermedad de Kyrle, dermatosis perforante serpiginosa) y secundarias (granuloma anular, seudoxantoma elástico, etc.). El tratamiento es a menudo poco satisfactorio. En la mayoría de los casos las lesiones se resuelven espontáneamente, pero usualmente recurren.

Biografía del autor/a

María Isabel Arredondo

RIII Dermatología, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana. Medellín, Colombia

Ángela Londoño

Dermatóloga, docente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana. Medellín, Colombia.

Rodrigo Restrepo

Dermatopatólogo, docente dermatopatología, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana. Medellín, Colombia

Citas

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Cómo citar
1.
Arredondo MI, Londoño Ángela, Restrepo R. Enfermedades con eliminación transepidérmica. rev. asoc. colomb. dermatol. cir. dematol. [Internet]. 6 de febrero de 2019 [citado 20 de mayo de 2022];16(3):185-9. Disponible en: https://revista.asocolderma.org.co/index.php/asocolderma/article/view/114

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Publicado
2019-02-06
Sección
Artículo de revisión

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