Biología de los melanocitos

  • Florinda María Busi Ochoa Universidad del Valle
Palabras clave: Melanocitos, melanogénesis, melanosomas, melanina

Resumen

El sistema de pigmentación melánica representa una característica distintiva de la evolución de los mamíferos, y para el estudio de la ciencia del
pigmento se requiere un amplio conocimiento de la biología de los melanocitos, su embriología, conformación subcelular, melanogénesis y factores regulatorios de esta importante vía metabólica.

El melanocito es la célula especializada en la síntesis de melanina, pigmento que efectúa una acción fotoprotectora frente a los efectos dañinos del sol. Los melanosomas son organelas citoplasmáticas con enzimas que participan en la síntesis de los pigmentos melánicos y son transferidos a los queratinocitos vecinos. El color de la piel está, en parte, determinado por la forma y distribución que adoptan los melanosomas dentro de los queratinocitos.En cualquier nivel de este ordenado sistema se pueden producir lesiones congénitas o adquiridas que se van a manifestar en alteraciones
pigmentarias distintivas. 

Biografía del autor/a

Florinda María Busi Ochoa, Universidad del Valle

RIII Dermatología, Universidad del Valle, Cali.

Referencias bibliográficas

1. Klaus S. History of the Science of Pigmentation. En: Nordlund J, Boissy R, Hearing V, King R, Oetting W, Ortonne JP.The Pigmehtary System. Second edition. Blackwell Publishing. 2006; 5-1 O.

2. Melissa L, Erickson C. Lineage Specification in Neural Crest Cell Pathfinding. Developmental Dynamics. 2007; 236:1-19.
https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.20919

3. Yvette W, Kay R, Ford-Perriss M, Panthier J, Murphy M. Neural crest cell lineage segregation in the mouse neural tube. Development 2004; 131: 6153-62.
https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.01533

4. Dupin E, Le Douarin N. M. Development of melanocyte precursors from the vertebrate neural crest. Oncogene 2003: 22: 3016-23.
https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1206460

5. Akin C, Metcalfe D. The biology of Kit in disease and the application of pharmacogenetics. J Allergy Clin lmmunol 2004;114: 13-9.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2004.04.046

6. Spritz R. Genetic Hypomelanoses: Disorders Characterized by Congenital White Spotting-Piebaldism, Waardenburg Syndrome, and Related Genetic Disorders of Melanocyte Development-Clinical Aspects. En: Nordlund J, Boissy R, Hearing V, King R, Oetting W, Ortonne JP.The Pigmentary System . Second edition. Blackwell Publishing, 2006: 541-50.

7. Pla P, Alberti C, Solov'eva O, Pasdar M, Kunisada T, Larue L. Ednrb2 orients cell migration towards the dorsolateral neural crest pathway and promotes melanocyte differentiation. Pigment Cell Res. 2005 18: 181-87.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0749.2005.00230.x

8. Reid K, Turnley,A, Maxwell G, Kurihara Y, Kurihara H, Bartlett P, Murphy M. Multiple roles for endothelin in melanocyte development: regulation of progenitor number and stimulation of differentiation. Development 1996; 122: 3911-9.

9. Hou L, Pavan W, Shin M, Arnheiter H. Cell-autonomous and cell non-autonomous signaling through endothelin receptor B during melanocyte development. Development. 2004; 131: 3239-47.
https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.01193

10. Jimbow K, Quevedo W, Prota G, Fitzpatrick T. Biología de los melanocitos. En: Freedberg 1, Eisen A, Wolf K, Austen K, Goldsmith L, Katz S, Fitzpatrick T. Dermatología en Medicina General. Quinta edición. Tomo l. Editorial Médica Panamericana. 2001 :198-228.

11. Cordero A. El Melanocito. La Melanogénesis. En: Cordero A. Biología de la piel. Editorial Médica Panamericana. 1996; 30-8.

12. Hirobe T. Role of keratinocyte-derived factors involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of mammalian epidermal melanocytes. Pigment Cell Res. 2004; 18: 2-12.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0749.2004.00198.x

13. Zhizhang R, Yuan Zhu W, Xia M, Feng Y. Morphology of Cultured Human Epidermal Melanocytes Observed by Atomic Force Microscopy Pigment Cell Res 2004; 17: 62-5.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1600-0749.2003.00111.x

14. Nordlund J, Ortonne JP, Le Poole C. Genetic Hypomelanosis: Acquired Depigmentation. En: Nordlund J, Boissy R, Hearing V, King R, Oetting W, Ortonne JP.The Pigmentary System . Second edition. Blackwell Publishing, 2006; 551-98.
https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470987100

15. Jiménez R, Velasco A, Hernández Q. El melanocito en el vitíligo. Dermatología Rev Mex. 2005;49:59-68.

16. Setaluri V. The Melanosome: Dark Pigment Granule Shines Bright Light On Vesicle Biogenesis And More. J lnvest Dermatol. 2003; 121 (4):650-60.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2003.12500.x

17. Borovansky J, Elleder M. Melanosome Degradation: Fact or Fiction. Pigment Cell Res. 2003; 16: 280-86.
https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0749.2003.00040.x

18. Hearing V. The Regulation of Melanin Formation. En: Nordlund J, Boissy R, Hearing V, King R, Oetting W, Ortonne JP. The Pigmentary System . Second edition. Blackwell Publishing. 2006; 191-212.

19. Kobayashi T, Vieira W, Potterf B, Sakai C, lmokawa G, Hearing V, Modulation of melanogenic protein expression during the switch from eu- to Pheomelanogenesis. Journal of Cell Science 108, 2301-9.

20. Boissy R. Melanosome transfer to and translocation in the keratinocyte. Exp Dermatol 2003: 12 (Suppl. 2): 5-12.
https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0625.12.s2.1.x

21. Vancoillie G, Lambert J, Mulder A. , et al. Kinesin participates in melanosomal movement along melanocyte dendrites. J lnvest Dermatol. 2000; 114: 438-43.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00894.x

22. Seiberg M, Paine C, Sharlow E. et al. lnhibition of melanosome transfer results in skin lightening. J lnvest Dermatol 2000; 115: 162-67.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00035.x

23. Sharlow E, Paine C, Eisinger M., Shapiro S, Seiberg M.The protease-activated receptor-2 upregulates keratinocyte phagocytosis. J Cell Sci 2000; 113: 3093-101.

24. Seiberg M, Paine C, Sharlow E., et al. The proteaseactivatedreceptor- 2 regulates pigmentation via keratinocyte-melanocyte interactions. Exp Cell Res 2000: 254: 25-32.
https://doi.org/10.1006/excr.1999.4692

25. Scott G, Cassidy L. Rac1 Mediates Dendrite Formation in Response to Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone and Ultraviolet Light in a Murine Melanoma Model. J lnvest Dermatol 1998 111 :243-50.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.1998.00276.x

26. Scott G. Rae and Rho: The Story Behind Melanocyte Dendrite Formation. Pigment Cell Res. 2002; 15: 322-30.
https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0749.2002.02056.x

27. Barral D, Seabra M. The Melanosome as a Model to Study Organelle Motility in Mammals. Pigment Cell Res. 2004; 17: 111-18.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0749.2004.00138.x

28. Gordon PR, Mansur CP, Gilchrest BA. Regulation of human melanocyte growth, dendricity, and melanization by keratinocyte derived factors. J lnvest Dermatol 1989;92:565-72.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12709595

29. Fang D, Kute T, Setaluri V. Regulation of tyrosinaserelated protein-2 (TYRP2) in human melanocytes: relationship to growth and morphology. Pigment Cell Res 2001 ;14:132-39.
https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0749.2001.140209.x

30. 30 . Konrad K, Wolff K. Hyperpigmentation, melanosome size, and distribution patterns of melanosomes. Arch Dermatol 1973: 107: 853-60.
https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.107.6.853

31. Tsatmali M, Ancans J, Thody AJ.Melanocyte Function and lts Control by Melanocortin Peptides. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002; 50:125-33.
https://doi.org/10.1177/002215540205000201

32. Bhardwaj R, LugerTA. Proopiomelanocortin production by epidermal cells: evidence far an immune neuroendocrine network in the epidermis. Arch Dermatol Res 1994; 287:85-90.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00370724

33. Schauer E, Trautinger F, Kock A, Schwarz A, Bhardwaj R. Proopiomelanocortin derived peptides are synthesised and released by human keratinocytes. J Clin lnvest 1994;93:2258-62.
https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI117224

34. Leonard J, Marks L, Cook A, Boyle G, Smit D, Brown D, Stow J, Parson P,SturmaR. Screening of Human Primary Melanocytes of Defined Melanocortin-1 Receptor Genotype: Pigmentation Marker, Ultrastructural and UV-Survival Studies. Pigment Cell Res. 2003; 16: 198-207.
https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0749.2003.00033.x

35. Hunt G, Todd C, Cresswell JE, Thody AJ. Melanocyte stimulating hormone and its analogue Nle4DPhe7 alfa MSH affect morphology, tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis in cultured human melanocytes. J Cell Sci 1994; 107:205-11.

36. Hunt G, Kyne S, lto S, Wakamatsu K, Todd C, Thody AJ. Eumelanin and phaeomelanin contents of human epidermis and cultured melanocytes. Pigment Cell Res 1995; 8:202-8.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0749.1995.tb00664.x

37. Schibth HB, Phillips SR, Rudzish R, Birch-Machin MA, Wikberg JE, Rees JL. Loss of function mutations of the human melanocortin1 receptor are common and associated with red hair. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1999; 260:488-91.
https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1999.0935

38. Yukitake J, Tsatmali M, Ancans J, Thody AJ.Desacetyl alfa MSH is a partial agonist at the human MC1 -R. Pigment Cell Res S 1999;7:72.

39. Tsatmali M, Graham A, Szatkowski D, Ancans J, Manning P, Mc-Neil CJ. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone modulates nitric oxide production in melanocytes J lnvest Dermatol 200;114:520-6.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00879.x

40. Lassalle M, lgarashi S, Sasaki M, Wakamatsu K, lto S, Horikoshi T. Effects of Melanogenesis-lnducing Nitric Oxide and Histamine on the Production of Eumelanin and Pheomelanin in Cultured Human Melanocytes. Pigment Cell Res.2003;16:81-4.
https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0749.2003.00004.x

41. Yan Lu, Zhu W, Tan C, Yu G. Melanocytes are Potential lmmunocompetent Cells: Evidence from Recognition of lmmunological Characteristics of CulturedHuman Melanocytes. Pigment Cell Res. 2002;15: 454-60.
https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0749.2002.02065.x
Cómo citar
1.
Busi Ochoa FM. Biología de los melanocitos. rev. asoc. colomb. dermatol. cir. dematol. [Internet]. 1 de diciembre de 2006 [citado 6 de octubre de 2022];14(4):371-80. Disponible en: https://revista.asocolderma.org.co/index.php/asocolderma/article/view/497

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.
Publicado
2006-12-01
Sección
Artículo de revisión