Mecanismos de patogénesis del melanoma maligno

  • Catalina Restrepo
  • Margarita María Velásquez
Palabras clave: melanoma, inmunología, fisiología, genética

Resumen

El melanoma es una de las neoplasias malignas de la piel más agresivas y peligrosas. Tiene múltiples factores de riesgo, siendo uno de los más importantes la exposición crónica e intermitente al sol. Además, tiene un componente genético que se asocia a los casos familiares, debido principalmente a las mutaciones del gen CDKN2A; sin embargo, la mayoría de los melanomas son esporádicos. En su patogenia se describen mutaciones en la línea germinal y mutaciones somáticas, las cuales modifican la regulación del ciclo celular y permiten un crecimiento no regulado. El sistema inmunitario juega un papel muy importante en la patogénesis porque, a pesar de que este tumor tiene antígenos que son claramente reconocidos, permitiendo que el sistema inmunitario monte una respuesta, las células del melanoma logran evadir la inmunidad innata y la adaptativa, para así invadir y generar metástasis.

Biografía del autor/a

Catalina Restrepo

Médica, residente de Dermatología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

Margarita María Velásquez

Médicadermatóloga; profesora, Sección de Dermatología, Centro de Investigaciones Dermatológicas, CIDERM, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

Citas

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Cómo citar
1.
Restrepo C, Velásquez MM. Mecanismos de patogénesis del melanoma maligno. rev. asoc. colomb. dermatol. cir. dematol. [Internet]. 1 de abril de 2012 [citado 22 de julio de 2019];20(2):161-72. Disponible en: https://revista.asocolderma.org.co/index.php/asocolderma/article/view/225

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Publicado
2012-04-01
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Artículo de revisión

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