Angioedema: enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico

  • Ricardo Cardona
  • Liliana Tamayo
  • Mauricio Fernando Escobar
Palabras clave: Angioedema, urticaria, angioedema hereditario

Resumen

A pesar de haber sido descubierto el angioenema hace más de cien años, su origen, su fisiopatología y el tratamiento de sus diferentes tipos son mal entendidos por la mayoría de los médicos. El angioedema puede ser causado por una activación en la formación de cininas o por degranulación de mastocitos. El angioedema inducido por los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina es producido por la inhibición de la degradación enzimática de la bradicinina. El angioedema puede ser ocasionado por una variedad de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, siendo más común por la aspirina. A menudo el angioedema adquirido idiopático es recurrente y crónico, asociado normalmente a urticaria. Su nombre implica que habitualmente no puede ser atribuido a una causa identificable. El angioedema hereditario es una patología caracterizada por episodios repetidos de edema que afectan la piel y las mucosas de las vías respiratorias superiores y
del tubo digestivo, debido a un déficit o disfunción del inhibidor de la C1 esterasa. Tiene carácter hereditario con una transmisión autosómica dominante. Recientemente varios grupos han reportado una tercera forma de angioedema hereditario que ocurre exclusivamente en mujeres con una actividad funcional y cuantitativa normal del inhibidor de C1 relacionada con los estrógenos. El angioedema adquirido ha sido descrito en pacientes con linfoma que tienen niveles disminuidos del inhibidor de C1 o autoanticuerpos dirigidos contra tal proteína.

Biografía del autor/a

Ricardo Cardona

Alergólogo Clínico, Magíster en Inmunología, Coordinador de la Especialidad en Alergología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín_ Colombia.

Liliana Tamayo

Dermatóloga, Docente de Alergología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín_ Colombia.

Mauricio Fernando Escobar

Residente de II año de la Especialidad en Alergología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín_ Colombia

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Cómo citar
1.
Cardona R, Tamayo L, Escobar MF. Angioedema: enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico. rev. asoc. colomb. dermatol. cir. dematol. [Internet]. 1 de febrero de 2019 [citado 20 de septiembre de 2019];15(3):187-02. Disponible en: https://revista.asocolderma.org.co/index.php/asocolderma/article/view/69

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Publicado
2019-02-01
Sección
Educación médica continuada