Criopirinopatías: ¿qué son?, ¿cómo detectarlas? y ¿cuál es el enfoque de su tratamiento?

  • Maribel Gallego
  • Catalina Jaramillo
  • Jaime Sierra
  • Margarita María Velásquez
Palabras clave: síndromes periódicos asociados con criopirinas, síndrome CINCA, síndrome articular y cutáneo neurológico infantil crónico, criopirinopatía, síndrome autoinflamatorio familiar por frío, urticaria familiar por frío, enfermedad inflamatoria multisistémica de inicio en la infancia (IOMID), síndrome de Muckle-Wells, enfermedad inflamatoria multisistémica de inicio en el periodo neonatal (NOMID), proteína con dominio pirina 3 de la familia NLR

Resumen

Los síndromes periódicos asociados con criopirinas (Cryopyrin Associated Periodic Syndromes, CAPS), o criopirinopatías, son enfermedades raras que hacen parte de los síndromes autoinflamatorios, caracterizados por episodios de fiebre recu­rrente e inflamación sin etiología autoinmunitaria, neoplásica ni infecciosa. Entre estos síndromes, los CAPS incluyen tres entidades: el síndrome autoinflamatorio familiar por frío (Familial Cold Autoinflammatory Syndrome, FCAS), el síndrome de Muckle-Wells y la enfermedad multisistémica inflamatoria de inicio neonatal (Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease, NOMID), también conocida como síndrome articular, cutáneo y neurológico crónico infantil (Chronic Infantile Neurological Cutaneous and Articular (CINCA) syndrome).

Se han identificado mutaciones en el gen NLRP3 como etiología de estos sín­dromes, con un patrón de herencia autosómico dominante en la mayoría de los casos. El diagnóstico suele hacerse por sus manifestaciones clínicas, con apoyo de la biopsia de piel, y se confirma con el estudio genético. Hasta la fecha, el tra­tamiento basado en el bloqueo de la IL-1β, ha mostrado una mejoría satisfactoria en la mayoría de los pacientes.

Biografía del autor/a

Maribel Gallego

Médico, dermatólogo, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

Catalina Jaramillo

Médico, dermatólogo, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

Jaime Sierra

Médico, dermatólogo, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

Margarita María Velásquez

Médica dermatóloga, doctora en Ciencias Básicas Biomédicas con énfasis en Inmunología; profesora, Sección de Dermatología, Centro de Investigaciones Dermatológicas CIDERM, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

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1.
Gallego M, Jaramillo C, Sierra J, Velásquez MM. Criopirinopatías: ¿qué son?, ¿cómo detectarlas? y ¿cuál es el enfoque de su tratamiento?. rev. asoc. colomb. dermatol. cir. dematol. [Internet]. 1 de junio de 2019 [citado 25 de septiembre de 2020];27(2):108-27. Disponible en: https://revista.asocolderma.org.co/index.php/asocolderma/article/view/983

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2019-06-01
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