Guías colombianas para el manejo del acné: una revisión basada en la evidencia por el Grupo Colombiano de Estudio en Acné

  • Grupo Colombiano de Estudio en Acné .
Palabras clave: acné, guías, tratamiento

Resumen

El acné es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica que afecta, principalmente, adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. Se calcula que antes de los 21 años entre el 80 y el 90% de esta población ha estado expuesta a la enfermedad. Sin embargo, el acné puede persistir después de los 21 años y se sabe que 12% de las mujeres mayores de 25 años aún sufren de acné facial. El arsenal terapéutico para el acné consta de medicamentos tópicos y sistémicos que han demostrado su eficacia en la reducción de las lesiones. El mecanismo de acción de estos medicamentos está orientado, al menos, a uno de los cuatro factores fisiopatológicos reconocidos como responsables de la formación de las lesiones del acné, a saber: trastornos de la queratinización, hipersecreción sebácea, proliferación de Propionibacterium acnes o actividad inflamatoria in situ. La elección del tratamiento apropiado depende de varios factores, como la forma clínica de la enfermedad (de retención o inflamatoria), la gravedad de la misma y la respuesta del paciente a tratamientos previos. Asimismo, y entendiendo al acné como una enfermedad de carácter crónico, el tratamiento debe incluir una fase inicial con el objetivo de lograr una mayor reducción de la extensión y gravedad de las lesiones, y una fase de mantenimiento orientada a la prevención de las recaídas o exacerbaciones. Además, el resultado del tratamiento depende del cumplimiento del mismo y para lograrlo, es fundamental una adecuada relación médico-paciente. Este documento presenta el resultado de una revisión actualizada de la literatura, que incluye guías nacionales e internacionales para el manejo del acné y formula recomendaciones terapéuticas basadas en el mejor nivel de “evidencia” que se encontró. Su implementación permitirá la unificación de criterios con el objetivo de ofrecer un mejor manejo a los pacientes con la enfermedad, evitando así sus secuelas físicas y emocionales. Por otro lado, las guías presentan un marco científico y conceptual con la suficiente validez para su inclusión en los protocolos del plan obligatorio de salud.

Biografía del autor/a

Grupo Colombiano de Estudio en Acné .

médicos dermatólogos colombianos de la Asociación Colombiana de Dermatología y Cirugía Dermatológica

Citas

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Cómo citar
1.
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Publicado
2019-03-05
Sección
Artículo de revisión