Vitiligo y vitamina D

  • Andrea Castaño Villegas
  • Catalina Moreno Zuluaga
  • Leonardo Javier Medina Albis
  • Óscar Jairo Valencia Ocampo
Palabras clave: Vitiligo, vitamina D, Melanocitos, deficiencia de vitamina D

Resumen

El vitiligo es la despigmentación cutánea adquirida más común. Se caracteriza por máculas acrómicas que afectan la autoimagen de los pacientes e impactan negativamente su calidad de vida. En cuanto a las teorías sobre la etiopatogénesis del vitiligo, está la autoinmunidad. Se ha demostrado que hay un déficit de vita­mina D en numerosas enfermedades autoinmunitarias.

La vitamina D es una hormona esencial con efectos pleiotrópicos y funciones es­pecialmente antiapoptóticas y modificadoras de la proliferación y diferenciación de los melanocitos. Hipotéticamente, puede desempeñar un papel coadyuvante en la repigmentación de las lesiones vitiliginosas. La actividad inmunorregula­dora de la vitamina D podría ser utilizada en el tratamiento del vitiligo.

A continuación, se hace una revisión de tema sobre el vitiligo, su relación con las concentraciones de la vitamina D y las influencias que podría tener en la fisiopa­tología; además, se analiza su posible uso como herramienta terapéutica para el vitiligo. El comportamiento de los niveles de vitamina D en rangos de deficiencia e insuficiencia entre pacientes con vitiligo y controles sanos son controversiales; algunos muestran niveles más bajos en el grupo de vitiligo y otros no muestran diferencias entre los grupos. A pesar de lo anterior, los estudios recientes sugieren una relación entre la insuficiencia de vitamina D en pacientes con vitiligo y un riesgo mayor de padecer otras enfermedades autoinmunitarias y que el uso de dosis altas de vitamina D en pacientes con vitiligo podría mejorar la repigmen­tación. La información revisada permite concluir que la relación entre el vitiligo y los niveles de vitamina D requiere de más estudios que aclaren su papel en la inmunopatogénesis y en la probabilidad de recomendar su uso terapéutico.

Biografía del autor/a

Andrea Castaño Villegas

Médica, residente de Dermatología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

Catalina Moreno Zuluaga

Médica, residente de Dermatología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

Leonardo Javier Medina Albis

Médico dermatólogo; docente de Dermatología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. Centro de Investigaciones Dermatológicas CIDERM

Óscar Jairo Valencia Ocampo

Médico dermatólogo; docente de Dermatología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. Centro de Investigaciones Dermatológicas CIDERM

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Cómo citar
1.
Castaño Villegas A, Moreno Zuluaga C, Medina Albis LJ, Valencia Ocampo Óscar J. Vitiligo y vitamina D. rev. asoc. colomb. dermatol. cir. dematol. [Internet]. 19 de junio de 2019 [citado 22 de julio de 2019];27(1):36-1. Disponible en: https://revista.asocolderma.org.co/index.php/asocolderma/article/view/428

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Publicado
2019-06-19
Sección
Artículo de revisión